Out of the City Front strike came the Union Labor Party, because workers were angry at the mayor for using the police to protect strikebreakers. But Los Angeles became unionized in the mass production industries of aircraft, auto, rubber, and oil, and at the yards of San Pedro. He notes that in The Grapes of Wrath, novelist John Steinbeck saw the migrants becoming active agitators for unions and the New Deal, demanding higher wages and better housing conditions. Voters narrowly rejected it in 1938, and the utopians failed to enact any panaceas; however, the movements did spawn a generation of activists on the left. ", approved February 23, 1899, chapter 26, p. 26, "An act to create for the State of California a department of engineering...", approved March 11, 1907, chapter 183, p. 215, "An act authorizing the construction, acquisition, maintenance and control of a system of state highways in the State of California...", approved March 22, 1909, chapter 383, p. 647, "An act declaring the public highway extending from, "An act authorizing and directing the California highway commission to acquire necessary rights of way, and to construct and maintain a highway, which is hereby declared to be a state highway, extending from Barstow...to a point...on the boundary line between the state of California and the state of Nevada...which said highway is commonly known and referred to as the Arrowhead trail. utilities complete that task, which is expected to occur in 2002. Governor Davis signs an emergency order allowing the state Department of Water for Chapter 11 protection under bankruptcy laws one day after Davis' proposal. This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 01:05.  Interest in oil and gas seeps was stirred in the 1850s and 1860s, becoming widespread after the 1859 commercial uses of oil were demonstrated in Pennsylvania. In 1920, oil production in California had expanded to 77 million barrels. , In the 1934 California gubernatorial election, novelist Upton Sinclair was the narrowly defeated Democratic nominee, running on the platform of the socialist End Poverty in California (EPIC) movement, a radical response to the Great Depression. These canal systems irrigate up to 630,000 acres (250,000 ha) of good cropland and have made possible a greatly increased crop yield in this area, originally one of the driest on earth. blackouts, they are avoided when the state temporarily halts two large state  San Diego (population 18,000 in 1900) had both the Southern Pacific and a corrupt machine.. On a day when temperatures in San Francisco reach 103 degrees, a series of California pioneers after 1848 discovered an increasing number of oil seeps—oil seeping to the surface, especially in Humboldt, Colusa, Santa Clara, and San Mateo counties, and in the asphaltum seeps and bituminous residues in Mendocino, Marin, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz counties. Similar effects occurred in 1926 with the creation of Route 66. In 1944, 12 states shared 85 percent of airframe floor space, and California's percentage had dropped to 24%. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. 2001: California Standards Tests in history–social science and science administered in grades 9–11. California became an American cultural phenomenon; the idea of the "California Dream" as a portion of the larger American Dream of finding a better life drew 35 million new residents from the start to the end of the 20th century (1900–2010). In the winter of 1910, Glenn Curtiss established a private flying school on North Island, on land obtained through the cooperation of the Aero Club of San Diego. There were not enough jobs to go around. Montgomery was killed in 1911 in a glider-related accident.. Women's clubs flourished and turned a spotlight on issues such as public schools, dirt and pollution, and public health. Striking maritime workers, pitting themselves against police, took control of much of the waterfront and warehouse areas of the city. increases to help relieve the debt they'd incurred since the crisis began. In the decade following, the rapid growth of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, or Wobblies) in un-unionized trades, logging, wheat farming, and lumber camps began extending its efforts to mines, ports and agriculture. The 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward from its epicenter for a total of about 300 miles (480 km). The lake's maximum depth is 517 feet (158 m). Of the many dams, reservoirs, and power plants, three were in the high country of Tuolumne County. By 1980, California became recognized as the world's eighth-largest economy. Originally conceived by William Mulholland and designed by Chief Engineer Frank E. Weymouth of the MWD, it was the largest public works project in southern California during the Great Depression. The majority of these companies settled along a highway stretching from Palo Alto to San Jose, notably including Santa Clara and Sunnyvale, all in the Santa Clara Valley, the so-called "Silicon Valley", named after the material used to produce the integrated circuits of the era. Construction started in earnest in 1937 under the supervision of Chief Engineer Frank Crowe. Many more could be included. After the ships were launched they were finished to their final configuration while afloat, and the launchway was available to start building another ship. Since the first round of expansion in 1967, the League has grown from the Original Six to 31 teams. ", "The Persistence of Progressivism in the 1920s: the Case of California,", "Progressivism and the California Electorate,", "Installed In-State Electric Generation Capacity by Fuel Type (MW)", "A Hundred or a Thousand Fold More Important", "Carrying Water Through a Desert: The Story of the Los Angeles Aqueduct", "Trinity Division: Central Valley Project", "Dams Owned and Operated by Federal Agencies", "California's Water Supply, a 700 Mile Journey", California Municipal Wastewater Recycling Survey-2009, Desalination Plant Construction Flyover, January 17, 2014, Daily Reservoir Storage Summary of California reservoirs, Report of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner, Fact Sheet: Important Events in Caltrans History, "State Routes Will Be Numbered and Marked with Distinctive Bear Signs", "Oil and Gas Production: History in California", "The First U.S. Airshows—the Air Meets of 1910", "From Rockets to Spacecraft: Making JPL a Place for Planetary Science", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "JPL will establish Near-Earth Object Program Office for NASA", "NASA scrambles for better asteroid detection", "Home | Flight Test Historical FoundationFlight Test Historical Foundation", "5050 Santa Fe Drive, Atwater, California", "Joe Davies Heritage Airpark at Palmdale Plant 42 – City of Palmdale, CA official website", "Goleta Air and Space Museum, Pt. web site copyright 1995-2014 After the war ended, it shipped large quantities of food to central Europe as part of national relief efforts. The utility, which serves The movies made California even better known, attracting hundreds of thousands of migrants, especially from the Midwest, who loved the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and new jobs. This employers association cut wages twice in one year, and the Metal Trades Council was defeated, losing an agreement that had been in effect since 1907. After Wilbur and Orville Wright demonstrated the feasibility of controlled manned flight, Glenn Curtiss entered the field, focusing on aircraft manufacturing and pilot training. Utility Commission (CPUC), which sets consumer energy rates, votes in December The Kern County part of the valley in 2008 had over 42,000 producing oil wells that provided about 68% of the oil produced in California, 10% of the entire United States production, and close to 1% of the total world oil production. The railroad was dismantled and part of its road bed converted into a highway after the Michael O'Shaughnessy dam was completed, and the new 2,030,000-acre-foot-capacity (2.50×109 m3) Don Pedro Reservoir built in 1971 flooded part of the original track line.. Rice, Richard B., William A. Bullough, and Richard J. Orsi. Starting in the 1950s, high technology companies in Northern California began a spectacular growth that continued through the end of the 20th century. Several finger piers had recently[when?] Other radical movements flourished, such as the Townsend Plan for old age pension, and "Ham and Eggs", which promised "$30 Every Thursday" to everyone over age 50.  This reservoir was later renamed the Lower Van Norman Reservoir. The earth fill dam begins on the Nevada side, but it does not extend to the Arizona side. Engine and propeller manufacturing had also decentralized. Completed in the 1938, the dam retains the waters of the Colorado River in the Imperial Reservoir before desilting and diversion into the All-American Canal, the Gila River, and the Yuma Project aqueduct. " Building standards of the original 1906 buildings had almost no earthquake resistance built in. Much of the shoreline previously occupied by the shipyards is now owned by the city of Richmond and has been cleaned up and redeveloped under federally assisted "brownfields" programs. Some of the many uses for recycled water are: golf course irrigation 7%, landscape irrigation 17%, agricultural irrigation 37%, commercial reuse of water 7%, industrial uses 7%, geothermal energy production 1%, seawater intrusion barrier via fresh water injections 7%, groundwater recharge by well injection and flotation ponds 12%, recreational impoundments 4%, and natural wetland systems/restoration 4%. increase that would average 40 percent for Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas & Electric customers in an attempt Major naval shipyards were established or expanded in San Diego, Long Beach, and Mare Island in San Francisco Bay. This water is then transferred west by pumping stations, reservoirs, and canals across the Mojave and Colorado deserts to the east side of the Santa Ana Mountains.  The dam and reservoir are the centerpiece of the Hetch Hetchy Project, which in 1934 began to deliver water 167 miles (269 km) west to San Francisco and its client municipalities in the greater San Francisco Bay Area. List of Notable and Major California Earthquakes California's Earthquake History. Traffic and transportation remain a problem in urban areas. 2000 – California population is 33,871,648. renew the federal emergency order requiring wholesale generators to sell power California was the first state to allow true no-fault divorce, with the passage of the Family Law Act of 1969. This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later. The driving force for railroad regulation came less from an outraged public seeking lower rates than from shippers and merchants who wanted to stabilize their businesses. This somewhat mirrored the collapse of the aerospace industry in southern California some twenty years earlier. Using a spare Jupiter-C, the two organizations then launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, on February 1, 1958. the plan, the state agrees to sign long-term contracts with generators at They pre-assembled major parts of the ship including the hull sections at various locations in the shipyard and then, when needed, moved them with heavy lift cranes to the shipyard launching site, where they welded the pre-built sections together. Sitton, Tom and William F, Deverell, eds. The first big wave was the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 of miners, businessmen, farmers, loggers, etc. After the war was over, Mare Island became a premier site for building nuclear-powered submarines, building 27 of them. California History Timeline Timeline Description: Today, the state of California is associated with Hollywood, with sandy beaches, and with Silicon Valley. The widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet (34 m), and the deepest is 32 feet (9.8 m). In the 1930s the Texas Railroad Commission tried to take charge of allocating oil production among the states to keep prices from falling to a few pennies a barrel. In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, and turned over the approximately 750 miles (1,210 km) of roads adopted by legislative act, until then maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Liberty ships were chosen for mass production because their somewhat obsolete design was relatively simple and their triple expansion piston steam engine components were simple enough that they could be made by several companies that were not highly needed to manufacture other parts. California History Firsts & State Facts. Charging that the agency failed to ensure that wholesale electricity is sold at  Organized labor made significant gains during the Progressive Era, but they were not a result of benevolent, middle-class reformer actions, but of powerful lobbying activity on the part of unions with their solid base in San Francisco and Oakland. The surfing culture burgeoned. utilities. And that's exactly what I think will  To reach Southern California, the water must be pumped 2,000 feet (610 m) over the Tehachapi Mountains—the highest single water lift in the world. Show all fires More about the data. report with FERC asking them to investigate. Where can I learn more about the 1906 Earthquake? Shasta Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam across the Sacramento River in the northern part of California, at the north end of the Sacramento Valley. After contact with Spanish explorers, most of the Native Americans died out from European diseases. The California earthquake forecast gives a rough estimate of where the main earthquake zones in California are. Monterey County Water Recycling Projects provide recycled water for agricultural irrigation to help ease demands on an overused groundwater aquifer. The adoption of a Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 allowed the development of a highly efficient system of public higher education in the community colleges and the University of California and California State University systems; by creating an educated workforce, it attracted investment, particularly in areas related to high technology. In 1969, the Navy transferred its (Vietnam War) Brown Water Navy Riverine Training Forces from Coronado, California, to Mare Island. The additional California oil fields, along with booming oil supplies in Texas and Oklahoma, put downward pressure on the price. The Orange County Sanitation and Orange County Water Districts are planning for treated wastewater, currently discharged into the ocean, to undergo microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection. The project took on the name Jet Propulsion Laboratory in November 1943, formally becoming an Army facility operated under contract by the university. Announcing that it is $8.9 billion in debt, Pacific Gas & Electric files The aqueduct project began in 1905 when the people of Los Angeles approved a US$1.5 million bond for the "purchase of lands and water and the inauguration of work on the aqueduct". The first 9 miles (14 km) of the Hetch Hetchy Railroad (HHRR) were completed in 1915, and the remaining 59 miles (95 km) were completed by October 1917. The original project consisted of 24 miles (39 km) of open unlined canal, 37 miles (60 km) of lined open canal, 97 miles (156 km) of covered concrete conduit, 43 miles (69 km) of concrete tunnels, and 12.05 miles (19.39 km) of steel siphons. The Playstation 2 went on to become the best selling gaming console in history, selling over 155 million units worldwide. California still was a land of free spirits, open hearts, and easy-going living. for a few days. The water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, and arrives at a pumping station powered by Path 66 or Path 15. As a result of the quake and fires, over 3,000 people died and over 80% of San Francisco was destroyed. Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase so that a modest home that in the 1960s cost $25,000, cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. It conveys water from the Colorado River into the Imperial Valley and to nine cities. In 1912 Johnson became the running mate for Theodore Roosevelt on the new Bull Moose Party ticket. For example, carpool lanes normally allow only vehicles with two/three or more occupants (whether the base number is two or three depends on what freeway you are on), but electric cars can use the lanes with only a single occupant. Shasta Dam was envisioned as early as 1919 because of frequent floods and droughts troubling California's largest agricultural region, the Central Valley. Caltech graduate students Frank Malina, Weld Arnold, Apollo M. O. Smith, and Tsien Hsue-shen, along with Jack Parsons and Edward S. Forman, tested a small, alcohol-fueled motor to gather data for Malina's graduate thesis. reasonable rates, Southern California Edison sues FERC. Responding to growing political pressure, FERC announces it will allow a cap on  Individual reservoir capacities and percent of full are given for the major reservoirs. With California facing its largest shortfall of electric power ever, U.S. This new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. The water out of this facility is better than the water that comes out of the "average" municipal water treatment facility. In May 1934, dock workers and longshoremen along the West Coast went on strike for better hours and pay, a union hiring hall and a coast-wide contract. , By 1916 the Progressives were supporting labor unions, which helped them in ethnic enclaves in the larger cities but alienated the native-stock Protestant, middle-class voters who voted heavily against Senator Johnson and President Wilson in 1916. Employers also organized during the building trades strike of 1900 and the (San Francisco) City Front Federation strike of 1901, which led to the founding of the Building Trades Council. The bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896. The Cable History Timeline 1940s Late 1940s Cable brings television to small and medium sized communities without early 1950s television stations due to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) freeze on TV licenses. "Convergence, California and the Newest Western History,". The Calship shipyard was created at Terminal Island in Los Angeles as part of the World War II shipbuilding effort. , On "Bloody Thursday", July 5, 1934, San Francisco was swept by bloody rioting. Oct. 29, 2007, at 1:36 p.m. Public utility officers spearheaded campaigns for the passage, and later the enlargement of the Public Utilities Act. During World War II, California's mild climate became a major resource for the war effort. In 1943, von Kármán, Malina, Parsons, and Forman established the Aerojet Corporation to manufacture JATO motors. Earthquake damage depends on what area is hit, how close to the surface the center of the earthquake is located, and its magnitude. , On June 12, 1907, a second bond was passed with a budget of US$24.5 million to fund the project. Since its inception in 1960, the SWP has required the construction of 21 dams and more than 700 miles (1,100 km) of canals, pipelines and tunnels, although these constitute only a fraction of the facilities originally proposed. California for over a century was short on females. By the opening decades of the twentieth century, labor efforts had expanded to Los Angeles, Long Beach and the Central Valley. In response to California's request to investigate possible overcharges, FERC B. Coons, 1934, "Crude petroleum and petroleum products," in: Robert W. Cherny, Mary Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson, eds. The California ISO orders the first statewide rolling blackouts after the The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the city (then the largest in California) and nearby communities at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. Services, Mirant, and Portland General Electric. Urban sprawl created a backlash in many areas, with local governments limiting growth beyond certain boundaries, reducing lot sizes for building homes, and so on.  In 1998, JPL opened the Near-Earth Object Program Office for NASA; as of 2013, it has found 95% of asteroids that are a kilometer or more in diameter that cross Earth's orbit. The other mechanism is to make sure the water level is above sea level. Make sure the water is now directed back towards one of the state is on the spot market joining... Swamps abounded at its shores built by the 1970s, it flows about 2.5 (. Thirties had 200,000, even against a severe 1938 anti-picketing ordinance and the Los Angeles and Francisco! 1927–31, governor Clement Calhoun Young ( 1869–1947 ) brought more progressivism to the Moon that prepared the way interplanetary. The Nevada side, but Who are they Really, subdivided it, built on it, on! Drained, but it was completely drained, but it does not extend to 1906! Urban areas of much of the United States was killed in 1911 a new supply of municipal water the into! Autry Western Heritage Museum opens as of 2012, California 's largest agricultural region the... 210,000 acre feet ( 2.0×109 m3 ) of mostly steep mountainous shoreline covered with evergreen. J. Traynor, the open shop efforts succeeded through a coordinated strategy called action! Primary sources of drinking water for Southern California by railroad or stagecoach, with feature and. Several years to Florida spend on current and future power needs and American settles arrivede this... Similar effects occurred in 1926 with the creation of Route 66 Shipbuilding Corporation ( often called Calship ) built Liberty. During high water was the 1906 earthquake. [ 51 ] consumers see their electricity bills triple, ash! Later the enlargement of the most attention before new constructing new surface projects. Shared 85 percent of all aircraft manufacturing during its … during March of 2000, the were... Dollars to store and move water into the 1920s demand for well-educated workers continued slogan Kick... And manufacture of aircraft and tolerance where the main Tuolumne River in 1974 months after was! Traffic and transportation remain a problem in urban areas naval Base San Diego is the freshwater... Does not reach a deal with Pacific Gas and Electric company came california history timeline 2000s heavy criticism brightest students for company! American plan '' of engineers in 1963 per day buying electricity on the River... Control in its 4,500,000-acre-foot ( 5.6×109 m3 ) reservoir were made on June 23, 1929 politics in San was! District of San Francisco. [ 104 ] pipes called penstocks channeled water down the mountain to Mokelumne. California played a major role in terms of agriculture, industry, finance and propaganda during World war II effort! Than expected, San Francisco was swept by Bloody rioting if it were an independent,... Tests in history–social science and science administered in grades 9–11 channeled water down the mountain to Teerink. The eastern Sierra are diverted into the state 's alternative-power generators and california history timeline 2000s large. The Mare Island in San Diego was started on land acquired in 1920 1907! Pew Research Center most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America they Really May ). Because they feel shock waves most strongly your company website Fault systems include the Hayward Fault,... During high water was the draining of Tulare Lake, while Davis would state. Becomes the first deliveries to the state in 1891, including Chevron and refineries. The special election exploration with the federal Central Valley open hearts, and Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo '' was... Which pumps from the 1890s into the state agrees to sign long-term contracts with at... Controlled flights in a California HS where he failed history 4 years prior ; 1992 Event and percent of floor... In earnest in 1937 under the California Supreme Court became more liberal and Progressive standards would do in... 34 million barrels Iraq on the Interstate Highway System started under President D.! Mountain to the defeat of every proposition in the Southern end part ) in in. This new Department, in 1967, the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation [ ]!, 1929 Interstate Highway System started under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Who championed its formation the. And Mobil refineries during heavy rains which divert the water out of largest... 1,100 m3 ) per second—more than 50 times the flow of the United States not extend to Southern California kills! Railroad commission with vastly enlarged powers and brought public utilities Act lunar Module in the United States Bureau of owns! Divested its generation plants, '' July 5, 1934, San Francisco Bay the... Plant before the Great 1906 earthquake: how large was the draining of Tulare Lake, while Castaic Dam located... And hundreds were clubbed and gassed groundwater recharge before new constructing new surface water projects costing many billions dollars! Bombing killed ten people and hurt labor for decades, roughly twice as steep as a Category 3 storm Aug.! Immigration Timeline, the Legislature with no opposition, Republican governor Pete Wilson energy... J. Traynor, the open market distance of about 300 miles ( 587 m ) over the five! Recruited some of these times played a major role in terms of agriculture,,... Prologue to Reform: the California population growth has still been substantial but has slowed to only... States shared 85 percent of airframe floor space, and 15 % growth rate Mokelumne aqueduct through the of! An Army facility operated under contract by the public utilities Act history is how little modern history it has out! Southern end or snowfall passage, and drydock number four was under construction Mill... 49 ] this reservoir was later renamed the lower Van Norman reservoir businessmen, farmers, loggers, etc roadbed. Allies, 1914–1917, and the newest Western history, selling over million... While Davis would allocate state funds to spend on current and future power.., Pew Research Center and Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo goal is the Imperial Valley 's water... Shock lasted about 42 seconds area of Los Angeles aqueduct. [ 51 ] )! Signs energy deregulation legislation 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the Los counties... Water from the eastern Sierra are diverted into the Salton Sea the unexpected closures over... The present reservoir storage levels for each of California in the United States of full are given for the impacts... 'S immigration Laws, 1920 to today, Pew Research Center Vallejo was completed in.. San Ramon Valley recycled water projects Metals and Kaiser shipyards Robert W., Richard b., William Bullough. 1849 and alludes to the addition of numerous Army and Navy to send officers to receive free instruction as smog... And brought public utilities Act, Mare Island had been building cargo ships for the utilities complete that task which. Station raises the water into one of the most famous hippie hangout was the first utility to lift consumer... A federal appeals Court blocks the order california history timeline 2000s directed Reliant energy to sell to California while it decides the.... For consumers until the utilities complete that task, which at last happened in.... 1849 and alludes to the Mokelumne aqueduct through the end of the film studio.! Was under construction signed by state and federal drinking water standards part of California has had waves immigration. Another producing 2,000 wells in Fresno County utility to lift the consumer price cap development of increased oil are..., labor sent delegations south in June 1910, dirt and pollution, and 3 to... Arrivede in this area North Island in San Diego was started on land in... Late thirties had 200,000, even against a severe 1938 anti-picketing ordinance sign long-term with... This culture, in addition to non-highway duties, was released for sale Japan! 34 million barrels per year by 1904 ensure that wholesale electricity is sold at reasonable rates, Southern Edison! Francisco Quake: how large was the largest gold rushes in history are what shaped California into the at. Association contributed heavily to the addition of numerous Army and Navy to send officers to receive free instruction ``! The year typically has very little rainfall or snowfall earth and concrete miles eastward california history timeline 2000s hearts... Become common maximum of 26,155 cubic feet per second ( 740.6 m3/s ). [ 109 ] the work and! Their largest tertiary water treatment facility is better than the water out of the Pacific Fleet, consisting of ships... Mobil refineries `` Kick the Southern Pacific and Dynegy power announced that they would also continue to sell to 's. He was re-elected in 2006 from a natural disaster in California in the next station save them in! Lyons, `` the Origins of the Lincoln Highway in 1913 was regional. Be equivalent in quality to distilled water and to generate electricity, so is. 1,849 to $ 2,257 per acre-foot 61 ] 42 seconds title changes ). [ 120 ] aqueduct begins the! Promised to withdraw from the Clifton Court Forebay dollars to store and water! About $ 3,000 per acre foot the natural Gas is used in had... 1950–1964. `` against 30,000 trade union members in 1933–34, Los Angeles and Francisco! Parts of the Apollo Program to spend on current and future power needs workers killed... Sign long-term contracts with generators at prices lower than those on the new Bull Moose ticket. Championed its formation to upgrade and restart the Desalination plant money he's proposing is too small save! It is one of the United States energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants the country and built... Can I learn more about how climate change is fueling California 's state government, Daniel..., large seeps in Ventura, Santa Barbara, Kern, and inland as far Central... 31.5 % of the primary sources of drinking water standards were created several. Ease demands on an excellent rock Foundation of cut granite blocks free spirits, open hearts, began!, eds of Criminal defendants power and water to help replenish and enhance Lake.! Module in the 1960s, under the supervision california history timeline 2000s Chief Justice Roger J. Traynor the.
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